Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure (YCPEM)

Our team member, Mary Khetani, and the Children’s Participation and Environment Research Lab (CPERL) at the University of Illinois Chicago led the development of a version of the PEM assessment approach targeting younger children. This version, called the Young Children’s Participation and Environment Measure (YC-PEM) (Khetani, Coster, Law, & Bedell, 2013) is designed to help parents, service providers and researchers better understand the participation of young children ages 0 and 5 years. The YC-PEM is modelled after the PEM-CY, but underwent extensive revision so that the questions and response options make sense when used by caregivers of younger children. The YC-PEM has undergone initial validation online with nearly 400 families in North America. A number of cultural adaptation and large sample research projects involving the YC-PEM are now underway.

To learn more about the instrument, please click here to listen to a recent podcast or watch the instructional video below.

Ongoing Development

The YC-PEM is being adopted into the workflows of early intervention and early childhood programs, to capture caregiver and family perspectives of their child’s participation for service planning and evaluation. Service providers and service users (families) in these types of organizations have asked for tools to help them better orient to the YC-PEM and view YC-PEM results. 

Three students who are pursuing research engaged occupational therapy careers completed their capstone projects, whereby they partnered with service providers and service users within these organizations to co-design these tools. 

Watch the video below to learn more about the YC-PEM and how to use it.

Watch the video below to see what is new and improved in the YC-PEM!

Watch the following videos to learn more about their contributions.


In this podcast, Dr. Mary Khetani and her team shared how they are using the YC-PEM to improve the involvement of parents in early intervention service plans for their young children with developmental delays.



  1. *Khetani MA, Graham JE, Davies PL, Law MC, Simeonsson RJ. Psychometric properties of the Young Children’s Participation and Environment Measure (YC-PEM). Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015;96(2):307-16. PMID: 25449189. PMCID: PMC4306635.
  2. Khetani MA. Validation of environmental content in the Young Children’s Participation and Environment Measure. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015;96(2):317-22. PMID: 25486608. PMCID: PMC4306606.
  3. Albrecht E, Kaelin V, Rigau B, Litfin J, Scully E, Murphy N, McManus B, Khetani MA, on behalf of the High Value Early Intervention Research Group. Pilot implementation of an electronic patient-reported outcome in an early intervention service context. BMC Med Infor Dec Making. 2020. DOI: 10.1186/s12911-020-01189-9.
  4. Benjamin T, Lucas-Graham R, Little L, Davies P, Khetani MA. Participation in early childhood educational environments for young children with and without developmental disabilities and delays: A mixed-methods study. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2016. PMID: 26930134
  5. Khetani MA, McManus B, Albrecht E, Kaelin V, Litfin J, Scully E, on behalf of the High Value Early Intervention Research Group. Early intervention service intensity and young children’s home participation. BMC Pediatr. 2020.DOI: 10.1186/s12887-020-02182-x
  6. Kaelin V, Bosak D, Villegas V, Imms C, Khetani MA. Participation-focused strategy use among caregivers of children receiving early intervention. Am J Occup Ther. 2021;75: 1-11. DOI:
  7. Jarvis J, Fayed N, Fink E, Choong K, Khetani MACaregiver dissatisfaction with their child’s participation in home activities after pediatric critical illness. BMC Pediatr. 2020. DOI:
  8. Sim J, Kaelin V, Kuznicki L, Banks S, Bane J, Salgado Z, Villegas V, Khetani MA, on behalf of the High Value Early Intervention Research Group. Testing an electronic option to empower family-centered early intervention services.

Cultural Adaptation

  1. Lim C, Law MC, Khetani MA, Pollock N, Rosenbaum P. Establishing the cultural equivalence of the Young Children’s Participation and Environment Measure (YC-PEM) for use in Singapore. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. PMID: 26642891
  2. Lim CY, Law M, Khetani MA, Rosenbaum P, Pollock N. Psychometric evaluation of the Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure (YC-PEM) for use in Singapore. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2017;38(3): 316-28.
  3. Arestad K, MacPhee D, Lim C, Khetani MA. Cultural adaptation of a pediatric rehabilitation outcome measure. BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17(1): 658. DOI: 10.1186/s12913-017-2592-6.
  4. Astrom F, Khetani MA, Axelsson AK. Young Children’s Participation and Environment Measure (YC-PEM): Swedish cultural adaptation. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2017; 38(3): 329-42.
  5. Chien CW, Leung C, Schoeb V, Au A. A Chinese version of the Young Children’s Participation and Environment Measure: Psychometric evaluation in a Hong Kong Sample. Disabil Rehabil. 2020;25:1-9. Doi: 10.1080/09638288.2020.1727032.


The YC-PEM is now available for license:


The purchased version is available as a PDF and includes scoring recommendations, as well as comparative data for children with and without disabilities. Purchasing a single-licensed copy allows a service provider to make unlimited copies of the YC-PEM. Licenses are also available for organizations.